Magnesium & Muscles

Do you lead a highly active lifestyle? This guide shows how the 6 major aspects of the muscular system all need magnesium, and how a highly active lifestyle without magnesium supplementation can damage your health.

  1. Converting fats and carbs into muscle fuel is magnesium-dependent.[1]
  2. The creatine system in all nerves and muscles is magnesium-dependent.[4,5]
  3. Muscular contraction & relaxation is magnesium-dependent.(video)[2]
  4. The activation of our muscles via our nerves is magnesium-dependent.[3]
  5. The process of building muscle (protein synthesis) is magnesium-dependent.[1]
  6. Making testosterone is impossible without magnesium, and magnesium raises innate production of performance-enhancing hormones.[6,7]
  7. Intense exercise while magnesium-deficient can contribute to disease.

Simply put, we’ll look at why humans need magnesium for muscular function and structure – which explains why magnesium is critical to sport [8] and muscular performance well into old age.” [9]  The solutions section then looks at measures we can take to restore and maintain healthy magnesium levels.

1. Magnesium fuels muscles:

The main reason we eat fat and carbs is because our cells convert them into energy molecules called ATP: Adenosine Triphosphate.[10] Every stage of ATP generation requires magnesium.[1,11] The first stage is when cells (including muscle cells) absorb fats and carbs from our bloodstream:


Magnesium helps muscles absorb fuel

Carbs (glucose): The hormone insulin lets muscles absorb carbs. It’s made via protein synthesis (which requires magnesium)[12-16] by beta cells that function better with magnesium.[17] Insulin receptors also need magnesium.[18-22] All this explains why magnesium supplements improve our cells’ sensitivity to insulin[23], which is desired by all athletes.

Fats (fatty acids): When we burn body fat, the hormones glucagon and growth hormone force fat cells to release their stored fatty acids so that muscle cells can then aborb and use them for energy. These two fat-liberating hormones are made via protein synthesis – a process which requires magnesium.[12-16]  Fats then require special transporters to enter cells.[24] They are also made via magnesium-dependent protein synthesis. 


Magnesium converts fat & carbs into energy

Muscle cells convert glucose and fatty acids into energy in three sequential phases. The first phase happens in the cell, and the second and third happen inside the cell’s mitochondria: the energy factories that produce 90% of a healthy cell’s energy.[25,26]

PHASE 1In the first phase, glucose and fatty acids each undergo their own multi-step process that breaks them down into smaller molecules called Acetyl-CoA:

Glucose undergoes glycolysis. Seven of the ten steps in glycolysis need magnesium. Because each step in glycolysis needs the prior step to occurr first, glycolysis is impossible without magnesium.[27]

Fatty acids undergo beta oxidation[28]. Each step again depends on the previous, and the entry step needs magnesium, which makes beta-oxidation dependent on magnesium.[29]

PHASE 2The smaller Acetyl-CoA molecules now enter our mitochondria for phase 2:

The citric acid cycle is the first of these two phases. It has 7 steps, all of which cannot happen without the prior step happening first. Four of these steps required enzymes that need magnesium, making this entire process impossible to complete without magnesium.[29]  The completion of the citric acid cycle creates even smaller molecules called electron carriers, which enter the final and most important phase of ATP (energy) generation, where most of the ATP is made:


PHASE 3:  Oxidative phosphorylation[30], is the last phase of ATP production where mitochondria use oxygen and electrons to create large amounts of ATP. The fourth step that uses the cytochrome c oxidase enzyme, requires magnesium.[31] Magnesium also plays a crucial role In the final step where the enzyme ATP synthase finally produces the ATP molecules.[32]

Simply put, without magnesium we can’t make energy. This explains why metabolic disorders like diabetes (whose main problem is low cellular energy production) are associated with low magnesium intake.[33,34]


Magnesium is ATP energy!

In addition to converting fat and carbs into ATP, magnesium also makes up an actual physical component of the ATP molecule, which is why the molecule is actually called Mg-ATP.[35,36] This is why magnesium is involved in all biochemical processes involving ATP [37] and why ATP is biologically inactive when not bound to magnesium.[20]

In other words, our muscles need magnesium for energy production.

1. Summary

Our muscles can’t absorb fuel sources without magnesium because insulin, growth hormone, glugacon and fatty acid transporters all depend on it.

Our muscles also need magnesium to convert carbs and fats into usable energy molecules called ATP.

Magnesium is also a key physical component of every ATP molecule, and deficiency is linked to diabetes.

2. Magnesium & creatine:

Creatine’s proven ability to increase muscular performance is due to its role in helping our mitochondria make ATP[38]: 

Once an ATP molecule has been used for its energy, it becomes an ADP molecule (adenosine di phosphate). The enzyme creatine kinase then turns ADP back into ATP. However in order for creatine kinase to exert its effect on ADP, ADP must be bound to magnesium[39]. In other words, the creatine pathway needs magnesium.

Thus if you supplement creatine and are deficient in magnesium, then much of your creatine is being wasted. This explains why creatine supplements together with magnesium supplements work better than creatine alone[40,5]. It may also shed light on why some people respond less to creatine: they may have substantially lower magnesium levels. 

Because our brain and nerves also need the creatine system[41,42], creatine levels in our brain determine cognitive performance [43] and creatine supplementation also increases mental performance [44], which is critical to most sports. Creatine also protects against brain toxicity[45], thus people who engage intense exercise frequently without supplementing creatine and magnesium may be increasing their risk of neurodegenerative conditions like Alzheimer’s[46].

2. Summary

Creatine helps muscular performance because it can boost ATP production.  Because this pathway is magnesium-dependent, we need magnesium for creatine to benefit us.

Creatine & magnesium supplements work better together.

3. Magnesium and muscle contraction & relaxation:

When muscles contract, they shorten and thus pull on the bones they are attached to, allowing us to move and exert force. When muscles relax, they restore energy and return to neutral position to allow for the next contraction. Magnesium facilitates muscular contraction and relaxation[2]. The 2 minute video below[v1] shows what happens during muscular contraction & relaxation and how magnesium is involved:



To sum up, muscle fibres consist of rows of long myosin filaments staggered in between rows of actin heads, running parallel to the muscle fibre they are in. The muscle fibres shorten when the myosin heads bind to the actin filaments: this causes the muscle to contract.

Calcium, ATP and ADP are all needed for the myosin to continuously bind and release actin enough times to complete a full contraction. Both ATP and ADP must be bound to magnesium in order to work.[11,20,37,47]  Once the muscle is fully contracted, calcium must leave the environment and re-enter the muscle fibre’s sarcoplasmic reticulum from whence it came, in order for the muscle to relax again. Magnesium is required for the uptake of calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum. [11,47-51]

Magnesium also plays a key role in regulating the speed of muscular contraction by modulating actin binding and ADP release in myosin, based on its role in five different types of myosin fillaments found in skeletal, smooth, and cardiac muscle.[52]

Simply put, muscular contraction and relaxation depends heavily on magnesium, which helps explain why muscle spasms and twitches are one of the most common symptoms of magnesium deficiency.

3. Summary

Contrary to popular belief, muscles need magnesium for both their relaxation and contraction.

The short video explains this in detail.

4. Magnesium activates our muscles:

Before our muscles contract, they must first be activated by our nervous system:

The neuro-muscular junctions are the points at which our nerves attach to our muscle cells. Our brain sends signals that pass through our spinal cord and then along its outwardly-extending nerves which end up at these neuromuscular junctions. When the signal passes from the nerve to the muscle fibre, it stimulates the release of calcium from the fibre’s sarcoplasmic reticulum into the space surrounding the actin and myosin filaments. Calcium’s interaction with troponin unblocks tropomyosin, allowing myosin to bind to actin and start the muscular contraction.

Reading our brain & nervous system page explains how the transmission of nervous signals, as well as the entire central nervous system as a whole, are dependent on magnesium. [3] Simply put, muscular contraction itself, as well as the nervous signalling that stimulates it, are both dependent on magnesium.

4. Summary

Before contracting, our muscles are first activated by nerves. 

Magnesium is central to all major aspects of nervous system function.

5. Magnesium builds & repairs muscle:

The biological process of building muscle (muscle protein synthesis) is one where our muscle cells assemble the digested amino acids from the protein we ate, into more specific proteins that add to our muscle tissue.  Both phases of muscle protein synthesis are impossible without magnesium:


1.  Selecting and copying the section (gene) of our DNA that has the instructions to build a muscle-protein.  This phase is magnesium-dependent for several reasons:

  • The DNA helicase and topoisomerase enzymes that unwind our DNA so the gene can be copied, are magnesium-dependent. [53-57]
  • The RNA polymerase enzyme which makes the copy of the gene once it has been unwound, is magnesium-dependent. [58-60]
  • The DNA ligases which continuously repair these genes that have the instructions to make muscle proteins, are also magnesium dependent.[61,62]

2.  The process of turning this newly copied gene into an actual muscle protein. This phase is magnesium-dependent because the enzyme responsible for this process – the ribosome – also uses magnesium to function.[15,16]

Simply put, the human body requires magnesium in order to build muscle, which explains why magnesium deficiency is associated with decreased muscle protein synthesis.[63] We know building muscle requires magnesium, but what stimulates it?


Magnesium stimulates muscle building

Muscle cells engage protein synthesis in response to three related stimuli:

  • Intense exercise (requires magnesium for ATP/energy)
  • Growth factors/hormones: IGF, insulin, human growth hormone (all made via magnesium-dependent protein synthesis)
  • Spikes in blood amino acid levels – (whose digestion is magnesium-dependent)

Not only do these factors require magnesium, but they all stimulate muscle protein synthesis by activating a cell-signalling pathway called mTOR: mammalian target of rapamycin.[64-73] This is the major pathway for all cells including muscle cells to stimulate protein synthesis.[74-79]

It does this by reducing protein breakdown/recycling known as autophagy [80-85], while simultaneously increasing factors of protein synthesis such as the function and even creation of new ribosomes,[86-88] the enzymes that assemble amino acids into proteins. The mTOR pathway is magnesium-dependent:

While mTOR’s complexity spans beyond the scope of this article, the critical factor here is that this muscle-building pathway is regulated and facilitated by magnesium both directly[89], and via ATP, which explains why low ATP causes a reduction in mTOR signalling and thus protein synthesis[76,90], and why mTOR inhibitors operate by competing with ATP. [91,92] Let’s remember:  ATP must be bound to magnesium as Mg-ATP, in order for this to work.

Simply put, our muscle cells’ mTOR pathway for building muscle, is magnesium-dependent.

5. Summary

Muscles grow after training when muscle cells assemble dietary amino acids into muscle proteins.

This process is called protein synthesis, and both its phases (gene selection and protein assembly) need magnesium.

Magnesium also helps stimulate protein synthesis via the mTOR pathway.

6. Magnesium, performance & hormones:

Magnesium enhances energy

Magnesium’s role in every major factor of muscular structure and function helps explain why magnesium supplementation is shown to improve overall physical  performance, while a deficiency reduces performance.[93-99]

These performance enhancing effects can be attributed to several additional factors, including magnesium’s raising of red blood cells and hemoglobin levels thereby increasing oxygen delivery to the muscles:[100]

Magnesium is shown to increase oxygen uptake, delivery and efficiency of use in both athletes[101-104], and older women[105], and its deficiency results in increased oxygen requirements during exercise.[106]

This leads to another energy related, proven mechanism of magnesium’s performance-enhancing effects: it increases glucose and thus energy in our muscles and brain.[107] This helps explain why magnesium supplementation enhances the effects of creatine supplementation, which is largely related to glucose and energy production.[5]

While keeping on the theme of energy for muscular performance, physical activity is known to reduce thyroid hormone: the most potent hormone for increasing human energy production. Magnesium supplementation prevents thyroid hormone from dropping during and after exercise.[7]


Magnesium & testosterone

Increased magnesium intake is also associated with strength gains[108], including performance in compound resistance exercises like the bench press[109].  This can be attributed both to magnesium’s profound impact on energy metabolism, and its strong association with anabolic hormones IGF-1 and testosterone[110], which explains why magnesium is shown to raise testosterone levels.[6]

Magnesium’s effects on our testosterone levels should come as no surprise however, because it is impossible for the human body to make testosterone without magnesium: Testosterone is a steroid hormone, meaning our body makes it out of cholesterol.[111] The conversion of cholesterol into testosterone requires the enzymes: p450ssc and p450c17.[112] All enzymes in the p450 family are magnesium-dependent.[113]

Simply put, any efforts to raise testosterone in our body naturally while we are magnesium deficient, cannot possibly yield maximal results.

6. Summary

It’s biologically impossible to make performance hormones like thyroid and testosterone without magnesium.

Magnesium boosts performance in all age groups due to its role in hormone and energy production. 

7. Exercise, magnesium deficiency & disease:

Our nervous and muscular systems’ dependence on magnesium help to explain why intense and endurance exercise significantly deplete magnesium and increase magnesium requirements [114-116]. Thus it is no surprise that active people and athletes are usually deficient in magnesium. Under certain circumstances, such a deficiency can directly increase risk of major diseases. Think about it logically:

Protein synthesis – which requires magnesium – is needed for building and repairing muscle, AND for the daily regeneration of our DNA and vital organs. Furthermore, magnesium itself is also required for the energy production, and more specific functions of all our body’s vital systems. 

When we engage in intense exercise, we activate our nervous system’s fight-or-flight response. This causes our body to prioritize our magnesium for the protein synthesis of our muscles before our organs, because our muscles are what the body uses in a fight-or-flight situation.

The problem is that this environment of muscle protein synthesis prioritization can last for up to 36 hours.[117,118] Therefore, if an athlete trains intensely 4-5 times per week, and does not supplement the lost magnesium that was used for training recovery, then their DNA and organs suffer from operating in a magnesium deficient state, which helps explains why magnesium supplementation reduces DNA damage in professional athletes.[119]

7. Summary

Exercise performance & recovery both use lots of magnesium.

Every vital organ needs magnesium for their daily regeneration and function.

An active lifestyle without magnesium supplementation can thus rob our organs of magnesium and increase risk of disease.


Our muscular system is magnesium-dependent. Without magnesium:

  1. Muscles cannot generate energy.
  2. Muscles cannot make use of creatine.
  3. Muscles cannot contract or relax.
  4. Muscles cannot be activated by our nerves.
  5. Muscles cannot rebuild and repair after exercise.
  6. We cannot make testosterone and thyroid hormone.

This helps explain why magnesium improves overall physical performance.  However frequent intense exercise can have the negative effect of forcing our body to prioritize our magnesium for the recovery of our muscular system above that of our organs and DNA.

Because our environmental stress levels and magnesium-depleted food supply both make it difficult to get enough magnesium from diet, and exercise only further increases magnesium deficiency, magnesium supplementation is strongly advised for all athletes and active people:

Solutions to restore magnesium:

The reality is that 100% of athletes and highly physically active people who do not supplement with magnesium, are in fact deficient. Based on magnesium’s essential roles in the human muscular system, supplementing with magnesium can have both performance and long-term health benefits for athletes.  A complete magnesium restoration protocol can include:

  • Eating a magnesium-smart dietLearn more
  • Reducing the environmental, psychological and physical stressors that deplete magnesium from your body. Learn more
  • Practicing diaphragmatic breathing after workouts to disengage the body’s stress-response pathways, which deplete magnesium when active.
  • Using a quality trans-dermal magnesium supplement to restore whole-body magnesium levels. Also, consider combining this with an oral magnesium-taurate, magnesium-orotate  or magnesium-glycinate supplement for added mental, cardiovascular and cellular support. Learn more


Video References:

v1: Audio done by All visuals/digital animation/footage have been taken from Microbiotic Youtube Channel:  We thank them for their phenomenal work!

Scientific References:

  1. Biochemistry of magnesium
  2. Magnesium and the regulation of muscle contraction.
  3. Magnesium in the Central Nervous System
  4. Advanced Human Nutrition. (pg 344, creatine kinase is magnesium-dependent)
  5. Magnesium-creatine supplementation effects on body water.
  6. Effects of magnesium supplementation on testosterone levels of athletes and sedentary subjects at rest and after exhaustion.
  7. The effects of magnesium supplementation on thyroid hormones of sedentars and Tae-Kwon-Do sportsperson at resting and exhaustion.
  8. New experimental and clinical data on the relationship between magnesium and sport.
  9. Magnesium and muscle performance in older persons: the InCHIANTI study.
  10. Adenosine triphosphate.
  11. Magnesium basics.
  12. The linkage between magnesium binding and RNA folding. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent):
  13. Bidentate RNA-magnesium clamps: on the origin of the special role of magnesium in RNA folding. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent):
  14. A thermodynamic framework for the magnesium-dependent folding of RNA. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent):
  15. RNA-magnesium-protein interactions in large ribosomal subunit. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent): 
  16. A recurrent magnesium-binding motif provides a framework for the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center. (Insulin creation is magnesium dependent):
  17. Magnesium improves the beta-cell function to compensate variation of insulin sensitivity: double-blind, randomized clinical trial.(While magnesium’s role in the beta cell’s actual release of insulin is less established than its role in the beta cells creating insulin, this study makes ground on the overall impact of magnesium on beta cells).
  18. Separate effects of Mg2+, MgATP, and ATP4- on the kinetic mechanism for insulin receptor tyrosine kinase.
  19. Role of divalent metals in the activation and regulation of insulin receptor tyrosine kinase.
  20. Substitution Studies of the Second Divalent Metal Cation Requirement of Protein Tyrosine Kinase CSK
  21. Intracellular magnesium and insulin resistance. (Insulin’s function is magnesium dependent):
  22. Magnesium in Human Health and Disease. (Insulin’s function is magnesium dependent):  or  see this excerpt:
  23. Oral magnesium supplementation improves insulin sensitivity in non-diabetic subjects with insulin resistance. A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized trial.
  24. Fatty acid transport across the cell membrane: regulation by fatty acid transporters.
  25. The Cell: A Molecular Approach. 2nd edition. Mitochondria
  26. Mitochondria.
  27. Magnesium regulation of the glycolytic pathway and the enzymes involved.
  28. Fat burning: Beta Oxidation
  29. Section: “ELEMENTS OF MAGNESIUM BIOLOGY” Subsection: 1.13 Synthesis and activity of enzymes
  30. ATP production: Oxidative phosphorylation
  32. Chemical mechanism of ATP synthase. Magnesium plays a pivotal role in formation of the transition state where ATP is synthesized from ADP and inorganic phosphate.
  33. Magnesium intake and risk of type 2 diabetes: meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.
  34. Magnesium Intake in Relation to Systemic Inflammation, Insulin Resistance, and the Incidence of Diabetes
  35. Pubchem: MgATP
  36. Magnesium in biology (Mg-ATP)
  37. Magnesium metabolism. A review with special reference to the relationship between intracellular content and serum levels.
  38. The role of phosphorylcreatine and creatine in the regulation of mitochondrial respiration in human skeletal muscle
  39. Effects of Ca, Mag, and EDTA on Creatine Kinase Activity in Cerebrospinal Fluid
  40. Synergistic Effects of Magnesium and Creatine on Ergogenic Performance in Rats.
  41. Functions and effects of creatine in the central nervous system.
  42. Functional aspects of creatine kinase in brain.
  43. Increase of total creatine in human brain after oral supplementation of creatine-monohydrate.
  44. Oral creatine monohydrate supplementation improves brain performance: a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over trial.
  45. Protective Effect of the Energy Precursor Creatine Against Toxicity of Glutamate and β-Amyloid in Rat Hippocampal Neurons
  46. The Creatine Kinase/Creatine Connection to Alzheimer’s Disease: CK Inactivation, APP-CK Complexes, and Focal Creatine Deposits file:///C:/Users/Matt/Downloads/035936.pdf
  47. Magnesium: its biologic significance.
  48. Magnesium dependence of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium transport.
  49. Effect of Magnesium on the Calcium-dependent Transient Kinetics of Sarcoplasmic Reticulum ATPase, Studied by Stopped Flow Fluorescence and Phosphorylation.
  50. Calcium efflux from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum: Effects of calcium and magnesium.
  51. The Binding of Calcium and Magnesium to Sarcoplasmic Reticulum Vesicles as Studied by Manganese Electron Paramagnetic Resonance.
  52. Magnesium Modulates Actin Binding and ADP Release in Myosin Motors
  53. Eukaryotic DNA helicases: essential enzymes for DNA transactions.
  54. DNA helicases: enzymes with essential roles in all aspects of DNA metabolism.
  55. A DNA helicase from human cells.
  56. Human DNA helicase V, a novel DNA unwinding enzyme from HeLa cells.
  57. Purification and properties of human DNA helicase VI.
  58. The linkage between magnesium binding and RNA folding.
  59. Bidentate RNA-magnesium clamps: on the origin of the special role of magnesium in RNA folding.
  60. A thermodynamic framework for the magnesium-dependent folding of RNA.
  61. RNA-magnesium-protein interactions in large ribosomal subunit. 
  62. A recurrent magnesium-binding motif provides a framework for the ribosomal peptidyl transferase center.
  63. Magnesium and potassium deficiency. Its diagnosis, occurrence and treatment in diuretic therapy and its consequences for growth, protein synthesis and growth factors.
  64. Insulin signalling to mTOR mediated by the Akt/PKB substrate PRAS40.
  65. mTOR signaling in growth control and disease.
  66. Activation of Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (mTOR) by Insulin Is Associated with Stimulation of 4EBP1 Binding to Dimeric mTOR Complex 1.
  67. The regulation of energy metabolism and the IGF-1/mTOR pathways by the p53 protein.
  68. Insulin-like Growth Factor-1 (IGF-1) Inversely Regulates Atrophy-induced Genes via the Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase/Akt/Mammalian Target of Rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) Pathway.
  69. Regulation of skeletal muscle growth by the IGF1-Akt/PKB pathway: insights from genetic models.
  70. Conservative Growth Hormone/IGF-1 and mTOR Signaling Pathways as a Target for Aging and Cancer Prevention: Do We Really Have an Antiaging Drug.
  71. The rapid activation of protein synthesis by growth hormone requires signaling through mTOR.
  72. The rapid activation of protein synthesis by growth hormone requires signaling through mTOR.
  73. Leucine Regulates Translation Initiation of Protein Synthesis in Skeletal Muscle after Exercise.
  74. The mTOR pathway in the control of protein synthesis.
  75. Deconvoluting mTOR biology.
  77. Signalling to translation: how signal transduction pathways control the protein synthetic machinery.
  78. The role of mTOR signaling in the regulation of protein synthesis and muscle mass during immobilization in mice.
  79. Nutrition and muscle protein synthesis: a descriptive review.
  80. Autophagy: process and function.
  81. Autophagy: cellular and molecular mechanisms.
  82. mTOR regulation of autophagy.
  83. Regulation of autophagy by mTOR-dependent and mTOR-independent pathways: autophagy dysfunction in neurodegenerative diseases and therapeutic application of autophagy enhancers.
  84. AMPK and mTOR regulate autophagy through direct phosphorylation of Ulk1.
  85. mTOR: a pharmacologic target for autophagy regulation.
  86. Roles of the mammalian target of rapamycin, mTOR, in controlling ribosome biogenesis and protein synthesis.
  87. Coordinate regulation of ribosome biogenesis and function by the ribosomal protein S6 kinase, a key mediator of mTOR function.
  88. Regulation of Ribosome Biogenesis by the Rapamycin-sensitive TOR-signaling Pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
  89. Daily magnesium fluxes regulate cellular timekeeping and energy balance.
  90. Upstream and downstream of mTOR.
  91. ATP-competitive inhibitors of mTOR: an update.
  92. Development of ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitors.
  93. Magnesium, zinc, and chromium nutrition and athletic performance.
  94. Nutrition and Athletic Performance.
  95. Magnesium and exercise.
  96. Minerals: exercise performance and supplementation in athletes.
  97. Magnesium sulfate enhances exercise performance and manipulates dynamic changes in peripheral glucose utilization.
  98. Dietary Magnesium Depletion Affects Metabolic Responses during Submaximal Exercise in Postmenopausal Women.
  99. Effects of magnesium on exercise performance and plasma glucose and lactate concentrations in rats using a novel blood-sampling technique.
  100. Effects of magnesium supplementation on blood parameters of athletes at rest and after exercise.
  101. On the Significance of Magnesium in Extreme Physical Stress.
  102. Effects of magnesium supplementation on maximal and submaximal effort.
  103. Magnesium metabolism and deficiency.
  104. L. R. Brilla and K. B. Gunther, “Effect of magnesium supplementation on exercise time to exhaustion,” Medicine, Exercise, Nutrition and Health, vol. 4, pp. 230–233, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  105. Dietary magnesium depletion affects metabolic responses during submaximal exercise in postmenopausal women.
  106. Vitamin and mineral status: effects on physical performance.
  107. Magnesium Enhances Exercise Performance via Increasing Glucose Availability in the Blood, Muscle, and Brain during Exercise.
  108. Effect of magnesium supplementation on strength training in humans.
  109. The effect of acute vs chronic magnesium supplementation on exercise and recovery on resistance exercise, blood pressure and total peripheral resistance on normotensive adults.
  110. Magnesium and anabolic hormones in older men.
  111. Biochemistry. 5th edition. Section 26.4Important Derivatives of Cholesterol Include Bile Salts and Steroid Hormones.
  112. Hormonal regulation of cytochrome P450 enzymes, cholesterol side-chain cleavage and 17 alpha-hydroxylase/C17-20 lyase in Leydig cells.
  113. Consider Magnesium Homeostasis: III: Cytochrome P450 Enzymes and Drug Toxicity.
  114. The Effect of a Marathon Run on Plasma and Urine Mineral and Metal Concentrations.
  115. Update on the relationship between magnesium and exercise.
  116. L. R. Brilla and V. P. Lombardi, “Magnesium in sports physiology and performance,” in Sports Nutrition: Minerals and Electrolytes. An American Chemical Society Monograph, C. V. Kies and J. A. Driskell, Eds., pp. 139–177, CRC Press, Boca Raton, Fla, USA, 1995. View at Google Scholar
  117. Changes in human muscle protein synthesis after resistance exercise.
  118. The time course for elevated muscle protein synthesis following heavy resistance exercise.
  119. Magnesium Supplementation Diminishes Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte DNA Oxidative Damage in Athletes and Sedentary Young Man.
Terms of Use

Our aim is to empower people with information and natural health solutions. The information and products provided by this website and company are not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease, and are not a substitute for a face-to-face consultation with your physician, and should not be construed as individual medical advice. The statements on this website have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug Administration. We do not make any representations or warranties in regard to any information offered or provided on or through this website, be it regarding treatment, action, or application of any natural treatments. Nothing said on this site is intended to encourage or promote the discontinuation of any medical treatment or prescribed medication. Any changes in your medication should only be considered under the supervision and consultation of your doctor or health care provider. Abrupt discontinuance of some medications can cause serious health complications. We take no credit for the footage and music used in the videos and graphics of this website. All credit goes to its respective media owners. Reliance on any information provided by, our affiliates, or others referenced or linked to on this Site, is solely at your own risk.

This disclaimer governs your use of this website. By using the website, you accept this disclaimer in full. If you disagree with any part of this disclaimer, do not use or read this website. If you do use or read this website, you are stating that you agree with this disclaimer. 2019   Ι   This website is designed and powered by